Archives For Biblical Greek

The "Sabbath" Psalms

August 29, 2012

Reading through the Psalms in the LXX, I discovered an interesting collection of six Psalms (24, 38, 48, 92, 93, 94) that I have termed “Sabbath” psalms because they all have references to days of the week that are based on the Sabbath day. It is interesting to ponder what significance these headings may have played for those who used the Septuagint as their Bible in the first century.

First day of the week:

KJV Psa 24:1 <A Psalm of David.> The earth is the LORD’S, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.

LXE Psa 24:1 <A Psalm for David on the first day of the week.> The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof; the world, and all that dwell in it.

BGT Psa 23:1 ψαλμὸς τῷ Δαυιδ τῆς μιᾶς σαββάτων τοῦ κυρίου ἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς ἡ οἰκουμένη καὶ πάντες οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ

NAU Psa 24:1 A Psalm of David. The earth is the LORD’S, and all it contains, The world, and those who dwell in it.

  WTT Psa 24:1 לְדָוִ֗ד מִ֫זְמ֥וֹר לַֽ֭יהוָה הָאָ֣רֶץ וּמְלוֹאָ֑הּ תֵּ֜בֵ֗ל וְיֹ֣שְׁבֵי בָֽהּ׃

 

The Sabbath day:

KJV Psa 38:1 <A Psalm of David, to bring to remembrance.> O LORD, rebuke me not in thy wrath: neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure.

LXE Psa 38:1 <A Psalm of David for remembrance concerning the Sabbath-day.> O Lord, rebuke me not in thy wrath, neither chasten me in thine anger.

BGT Psa 37:1 ψαλμὸς τῷ Δαυιδ εἰς ἀνάμνησιν περὶ σαββάτου

NAU Psa 38:1 A Psalm of David, for a memorial. O LORD, rebuke me not in Your wrath, And chasten me not in Your burning anger.

  WTT Psa 38:1 מִזְמ֖וֹר לְדָוִ֣ד לְהַזְכִּֽיר׃

 

The second day of the week:

KJV Psa 48:1 <A Song and Psalm for the sons of Korah.> Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness.

LXE Psa 48:1 <A Psalm of praise for the sons of Core on the second day of the week.> Great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in his holy mountain.

BGT Psa 47:1 ψαλμὸς ᾠδῆς τοῖς υἱοῖς Κορε δευτέρᾳ σαββάτου

NAU Psa 48:1 A Song; a Psalm of the sons of Korah. Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised, In the city of our God, His holy mountain.

  WTT Psa 48:1 שִׁ֥יר מִ֜זְמוֹר לִבְנֵי־קֹֽרַח׃

 

The Sabbath day:

KJV Psa 92:1 <A Psalm or Song for the sabbath day.> It is a good thing to give thanks unto the LORD, and to sing praises unto thy name, O most High:

LXE Psa 92:1 <A Psalm of a Song for the Sabbath-day.> It is a good thing to give thanks to the Lord, and to sing praises to thy name, O thou Most High;

BGT Psa 91:1 ψαλμὸς ᾠδῆς εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ σαββάτου

NAU Psa 92:1 A Psalm, a Song for the Sabbath day. It is good to give thanks to the LORD And to sing praises to Your name, O Most High;

  WTT Psa 92:1 מִזְמ֥וֹר שִׁ֗יר לְי֣וֹם הַשַּׁבָּֽת׃

 

The day before the Sabbath:

KJV Psa 93:1 The LORD reigneth, he is clothed with majesty; the LORD is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.

LXE Psa 93:1 <For the day before the Sabbath, when the land was first inhabited, the praise of a Song by David.> The Lord reigns; he has clothed himself with honour: the Lord has clothed and girded himself with strength; for he has established the world, which shall not be moved.

BGT Psa 92:1 εἰς τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ προσαββάτου ὅτε κατῴκισται ἡ γῆ αἶνος ᾠδῆς τῷ Δαυιδ ὁ κύριος ἐβασίλευσεν εὐπρέπειαν ἐνεδύσατο ἐνεδύσατο κύριος δύναμιν καὶ περιεζώσατο καὶ γὰρ ἐστερέωσεν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἥτις οὐ σαλευθήσεται

NAU Psa 93:1 The LORD reigns, He is clothed with majesty; The LORD has clothed and girded Himself with strength; Indeed, the world is firmly established, it will not be moved.

  WTT Psa 93:1 יְהוָ֣ה מָלָךְ֘ גֵּא֪וּת לָ֫בֵ֥שׁ לָבֵ֣שׁ יְ֭הוָה עֹ֣ז הִתְאַזָּ֑ר אַף־תִּכּ֥וֹן תֵּ֜בֵ֗ל בַּל־תִּמּֽוֹט׃

 

The fourth day of the week:

KJV Psa 94:1 O LORD God, to whom vengeance belongeth; O God, to whom vengeance belongeth, shew thyself.

LXE Psa 94:1 <A Psalm of David for the fourth day of the week.> The Lord is a God of vengeance; the God of vengeance has declared himself.

BGT Psa 93:1 ψαλμὸς τῷ Δαυιδ τετράδι σαββάτων ὁ θεὸς ἐκδικήσεων κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἐκδικήσεων ἐπαρρησιάσατο

NAU Psa 94:1 O LORD, God of vengeance, God of vengeance, shine forth!

  WTT Psa 94:1 אֵל־נְקָמ֥וֹת יְהוָ֑ה אֵ֖ל נְקָמ֣וֹת הוֹפִֽיַע׃

 

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

I am teaching a beginning Greek student about parsing nouns and verbs. I have explained to him the basic concepts of tense, voice, mood, person, and number (Greek verbs) and of gender, number, and case (Greek nouns).

While reviewing these with him yesterday, I recovered an approach to helping students learns these concepts that I first came up with a number of years ago. Using many English sentences and explaining how each word works in the English sentence, I then showed him what Greek would use to convey those same functions for the nouns and verbs.

The following example illustrates this approach:

 

Tim, Joe gave Frank his book.

Tim – direct address = vocative;
Joe – subject = nominative;
Frank – indirect object = dative;
his – (shows possession) = genitive;
book – direct object = accusative

gave – aorist active indicative

 

Here are 25 sentences that I made up to use this approach. For nouns/pronouns, give the case. For verbs, give the tense, voice, and mood, unless directed otherwise. Skip the underlined words.

 

Dave sent flowers to his wife.

 

Flowers were sent to Dave’s wife.

 

Dave, have you sent her flowers?

 

Dave has sent his friends Christmas cards.

 

The old man had bathed himself until he fell and hurt himself yesterday.

 

Roy was watching TV.

 

Mike is listening to the news.

 

Roy is her husband.

 

Joe had been mistreated by his boss until recently.

 

His car is being damaged by hail.

 

Tim had hoped that he would get a good grade in the class until he failed his test.

 

Will she do her homework on time?

 

I had lived in sin until God opened my eyes.

 

Were you being watched?

 

The picture showed the accident.

 

The men of Rome were hating themselves.

 

Have their children been saved?

 

The policemen should be arriving home soon. (Present ____________   _______________).

 

The children may be taught by the new teacher.  (Aorist ____________   _______________).

 

Don hit himself with his racket.

 

You are hearing for yourselves how bad things really are now.

 

I will be satisfied when I get to heaven.

 

Joe has burned himself before.

 

What should I send mom for her birthday? (Aorist _____________  _____________).

 

Bill will wash himself.

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

This past year, I forced myself to read through the LXX and the GNT. Although this project was very demanding at times, it yielded some valuable fruit.

I had several goals in mind when I began this major project to learn to read biblical Greek better. I praise God that He enabled me to succeed in meeting each of these goals, although not necessarily to the same extent for each one.

Greater discipline in reading Greek

I wanted to get to the place where I would be reading Greek every day. In the first half of 2011, I missed reading Greek on at least 53 days; in the second half, only six. So, I did become much more consistent as the year went on.

In spite of not reading any Greek on about 60 days (about 1/6 of the year), I was still able to finish by reading much more diligently on the other days.

Increased understanding and knowledge of Greek

Reading through the Bible in Greek resulted in advances in my understanding and knowledge of Greek vocabulary, forms, syntax, and semantics. Of the four areas, I probably increased the most in my grasp of Greek syntax.

Especially when I came to read the GNT this past year, I had a better grasp than before of how to connect words and phrases together that are arranged in ways that differ greatly from English word order. I did not notice this advance as much at first when I was reading the GNT, but as time went on, it became quite clear to me that I am now able to put together Greek sentences with more skill and with less effort!

Additional insights into NT use of the OT

I had hoped to find many more insights into NT use of the OT through this project, but such finds were not nearly as common as I had hoped. One major reason was my missing many days early in the year, which forced me to read much more than I would have liked on many days of the rest of the year. Had I been more consistent throughout the year, I would have had much more time to absorb more of what I was reading and would surely have seen more connections between the LXX and the GNT than I did.

Another factor that may have affected how much I saw this time around was my previous reading through the LXX and the GNT over a period of many years. Because in much of that previous reading, I have examined what I read much more thoroughly than I did this time around, I have already made numerous discoveries before this past year, which may have meant that I had already previously found a lot of what there is to find in this respect.

Progress toward thinking more in Greek and less in English

This is the hardest area to assess progress in, but I think that I did progress some. I hope that similar immersion in biblical Greek in the years ahead will result in my noticing plainly that my thinking in Greek has truly progressed.

I praise God for granting motivation and grace to finish this project and for the benefits that He has allowed me to receive as a result of completing this reading through the Bible in Greek!

(In Part II, I plan to give a number of examples of helpful things that I discovered this past year.)

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

Together, the verb μιμέομαι (“to imitate”) and the noun μιμητής (“imitator”) occur ten times in the NT:

KJV 1Co 4:16 Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of me.

SCR 1Co 4:16 παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε.

BGT 1Co 4:16 Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε.

NAU 1Co 4:16 Therefore I exhort you, be imitators of me.

KJV 1Co 11:1 Be ye followers of me, even as I also am of Christ.

SCR 1Co 11:1  μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε, καθὼς κἀγὼ Χριστοῦ.

BGT 1Co 11:1  μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε καθὼς κἀγὼ Χριστοῦ.

NAU 1Co 11:1 Be imitators of me, just as I also am of Christ.

KJV Eph 5:1 Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children;

SCR Eph 5:1  Γίνεσθε οὖν μιμηταὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὡς τέκνα ἀγαπητά•

BGT Eph 5:1 Γίνεσθε οὖν μιμηταὶ τοῦ θεοῦ ὡς τέκνα ἀγαπητὰ

NAU Eph 5:1 Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children;

KJV 1Th 1:6 And ye became followers of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Ghost:

SCR 1Th 1:6 καὶ ὑμεῖς μιμηταὶ ἡμῶν ἐγενήθητε καὶ τοῦ Κυρίου, δεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον ἐν θλίψει πολλῇ μετὰ χαρᾶς Πνεύματος Ἁγίου,

BGT 1Th 1:6 Καὶ ὑμεῖς μιμηταὶ ἡμῶν ἐγενήθητε καὶ τοῦ κυρίου, δεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον ἐν θλίψει πολλῇ μετὰ χαρᾶς πνεύματος ἁγίου,

NAU 1Th 1:6 You also became imitators of us and of the Lord, having received the word in much tribulation with the joy of the Holy Spirit,

KJV 1Th 2:14 For ye, brethren, became followers of the churches of God which in Judaea are in Christ Jesus: for ye also have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even as they have of the Jews:

SCR 1Th 2:14 ὑμεῖς γὰρ μιμηταὶ ἐγενήθητε, ἀδελφοί, τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τοῦ Θεοῦ τῶν οὐσῶν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ• ὅτι ταὐτὰ ἐπάθετε καὶ ὑμεῖς ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων συμφυλετῶν, καθὼς καὶ αὐτοὶ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων,

BGT 1Th 2:14 ὑμεῖς γὰρ μιμηταὶ ἐγενήθητε, ἀδελφοί, τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ τῶν οὐσῶν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ὅτι τὰ αὐτὰ ἐπάθετε καὶ ὑμεῖς ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων συμφυλετῶν καθὼς καὶ αὐτοὶ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων,

NAU 1Th 2:14 For you, brethren, became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are in Judea, for you also endured the same sufferings at the hands of your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews,

KJV 2Th 3:7 For yourselves know how ye ought to follow us: for we behaved not ourselves disorderly among you;

SCR 2Th 3:7 αὐτοὶ γὰρ οἴδατε πῶς δεῖ μιμεῖσθαι ἡμᾶς• ὅτι οὐκ ἠτακτήσαμεν ἐν ὑμῖν,

BGT 2Th 3:7 Αὐτοὶ γὰρ οἴδατε πῶς δεῖ μιμεῖσθαι ἡμᾶς, ὅτι οὐκ ἠτακτήσαμεν ἐν ὑμῖν

NAU 2Th 3:7 For you yourselves know how you ought to follow our example, because we did not act in an undisciplined manner among you,

KJV 2Th 3:9 Not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample unto you to follow us.

SCR 2Th 3:9 οὐχ ὅτι οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν, ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα ἑαυτοὺς τύπον δῶμεν ὑμῖν εἰς τὸ μιμεῖσθαι ἡμᾶς.

BGT 2Th 3:9 οὐχ ὅτι οὐκ ἔχομεν ἐξουσίαν, ἀλλ᾽ ἵνα ἑαυτοὺς τύπον δῶμεν ὑμῖν εἰς τὸ μιμεῖσθαι ἡμᾶς.

NAU 2Th 3:9 not because we do not have the right to this, but in order to offer ourselves as a model for you, so that you would follow our example.

KJV Heb 6:12 That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

SCR Heb 6:12 ἵνα μὴ νωθροὶ γένησθε, μιμηταὶ δὲ τῶν διὰ πίστεως καὶ μακροθυμίας κληρονομούντων τὰς ἐπαγγελίας.

BGT Heb 6:12 ἵνα μὴ νωθροὶ γένησθε, μιμηταὶ δὲ τῶν διὰ πίστεως καὶ μακροθυμίας κληρονομούντων τὰς ἐπαγγελίας.

NAU Heb 6:12 so that you will not be sluggish, but imitators of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

KJV Heb 13:7 Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.

SCR Heb 13:7 Μνημονεύετε τῶν ἡγουμένων ὑμῶν, οἵτινες ἐλάλησαν ὑμῖν τὸν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ• ὧν ἀναθεωροῦντες τὴν ἔκβασιν τῆς ἀναστροφῆς, μιμεῖσθε τὴν πίστιν.

BGT Heb 13:7 Μνημονεύετε τῶν ἡγουμένων ὑμῶν, οἵτινες ἐλάλησαν ὑμῖν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ, ὧν ἀναθεωροῦντες τὴν ἔκβασιν τῆς ἀναστροφῆς μιμεῖσθε τὴν πίστιν.

NAU Heb 13:7 Remember those who led you, who spoke the word of God to you; and considering the result of their conduct, imitate their faith.

KJV 3Jo 1:11 Beloved, follow not that which is evil, but that which is good. He that doeth good is of God: but he that doeth evil hath not seen God.

SCR 3Jo 1:11 ἀγαπητέ, μὴ μιμοῦ τὸ κακὸν, ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀγαθόν. ὁ ἀγαθοποιῶν ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐστιν• ὁ δὲ κακοποιῶν οὐχ ἑώρακε τὸν Θεόν.

BGT 3Jo 1:11 Ἀγαπητέ, μὴ μιμοῦ τὸ κακὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ ἀγαθόν. ὁ ἀγαθοποιῶν ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐστιν• ὁ κακοποιῶν οὐχ ἑώρακεν τὸν θεόν.

NAU 3Jo 1:11 Beloved, do not imitate what is evil, but what is good. The one who does good is of God; the one who does evil has not seen God.

These references show that Paul is the only person whom the Holy Spirit inspired to write statements that directly command other believers to be imitators of the same person (Paul) who wrote those commands to them (1 Cor. 4:16; 11:1).

Nevertheless, the writer of Hebrews and the apostle John also do command believers to be imitators of other believers (explicit [“whose faith follow”] – Heb. 13:7; implicit [“follow . . . that which is good”] – 3 John 1:11).* Because these statements are not directives commanding believers to imitate just Paul, we should conclude that we are to be imitators not just of Paul but also of other exemplary believers.

==========

*Although Hebrews 6:12 is not a command to believers, the purpose subjunctive (“that ye be . . . followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises”) also instructs believers to be imitators not just of Paul but also of other exemplary believers.

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

In his testimony to King Agrippa, Paul made known the commission that he had received from Jesus (Acts 26:16-23). He declared that Christ said that He was sending Paul to the Gentiles “to open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in Me” (26:18).

The purpose clause in this statement shows that Christ had ordained that through Paul’s ministry the Gentiles who believed in Him would receive two things: forgiveness and an inheritance. Because Luke’s record provides no further information from Paul about what this inheritance was to be, we have to look at other passages to determine its identity.

Colossians 1 is the only Pauline passage that uses the same word for inheritance (κλῆρον) that occurs in Acts 26:18. In his prayer for the Colossians, Paul was “giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light: Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of His dear Son: in whom we have redemption through His blood, even the forgiveness of sins” (Col. 1:12-14).

A close comparison of Acts 26:18 and Colossians 1:12-14 reveals striking similarities:

(1) “darkness to light” (Acts 26:18) cf. “darkness” (Col. 1:13) and “light” (Col. 1:12);
(2) “Satan unto God” (Acts 26:18) cf. “power of darkness” (Col. 1:13) and “kingdom of His dear Son” (Col. 1:13);
(3) “forgiveness of sins” (Acts 26:18) cf. “forgiveness of sins” (Col. 1:14)
(4) “inheritance among them which are sanctified” [κλῆρον ἐν τοῖς ἡγιασμένοις] (Acts 26:18) cf. “inheritance of the saints” [τοῦ κλήρου τῶν ἁγίων] (Col. 1:12)
(5) “faith that is in Me” (Acts 26:18) cf. “of His dear Son: in whom ” (Col. 1:13-14)

These striking similarities show that Jesus commissioned Paul with a ministry that had as its purpose that people would receive an inheritance in His kingdom!*

Moreover, Paul had spoken to the Colossians of “the hope which [was] laid up for [them] in heaven, whereof [they had] heard before in the word of the truth of the gospel” (Col. 1:5) and then proceeded to pray his prayer of thanksgiving to the Father for making them “partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light” (1:12). He followed that by stating that He had translated them “into the kingdom of His dear Son” (1:13). From the flow of thought here, we learn that the gospel that the Colossians heard from Paul declared to them the hope of their inheritance in the kingdom of God!

Paul thus preached the gospel of the kingdom to them, and the close correlation of Colossians 1 with Acts 26:18 supports holding that Paul’s commission from Jesus was to proclaim the gospel of the kingdom of God that involved receiving an inheritance in the kingdom of God!

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* Many passages with similar teaching to Acts 26:18 and Colossians 1:12-14 confirm this interpretation by using words related to the word for inheritance (κλῆρον) in both passages to speak of those who will or will not inherit the kingdom (Matt. 25: 34; 1 Cor. 6:9-10; 15:50; Gal. 5:21; Eph. 5:5; James 2:5).

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

Like many other seminary students, I learned NT Greek before I learned Hebrew. When I was given the Hebrew alphabet, I was taught to pronounce it by hearing it spoken and by reading English renderings of the names of the Hebrew letters.

Recently, I read through Lamentations in the LXX and noticed that the verses in the first four chapters began with the letters in the Hebrew alphabet rendered in Greek. Most of these are exactly what I was taught when I learned Hebrew, but a few vary somewhat.

I think that I would have learned the Hebrew alphabet faster had I been given these Greek renderings along with the English.

This table has the Hebrew alphabet in Hebrew, English, and Greek. It may be of help to some future students who try to learn it.

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

Among believers today, First Corinthians 11:2-16 is a heavily disputed passage. Because this passage comprises fifteen verses in a key NT epistle, it deserves careful and thorough handling. 

Determining the meaning of verses 14-15 and making appropriate application is one of the many challenging aspects of the passage: “Doth not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him? But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her: for her hair is given her for a covering.” 

Aligning the parallel parts of these verses helps bring out the meaning: 

Doth not even nature itself teach you,           

that if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him?
But if a woman have long hair, it is a glory to her:

for her hair is given her for a covering.

Based on the structure of the passage (note the exact parallelism of the relevant parts of the middle statements), these verses are setting forth what nature itself is teaching us. The word for nature (φύσις) does not refer to culture, environment, or human tradition. It refers to what is intrinsically within man. 

By using a precisely formulated rhetorical question, Paul asserts that we are to answer the question that he poses affirmatively. It is important to note also that the tight structure of the passage, especially the exact parallelism, shows that nature itself is teaching us something about both the man and the woman; the passage is not teaching just about what is true for a woman. 

Examining the Greek text of these verses brings out even more forcefully the relevance of the structure of the passage. Whatever application one comes to based on this teaching must do justice to what the original text actually says.

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

What does Haman have to do with head coverings and 1 Corinthians 11:1-16? An examination of the LXX of Esther 6 brings out a correlation between these seemingly otherwise unrelated entities that has important bearing on the interpretation of this highly disputed NT passage.

Esther 6 records the dramatic reversal that resulted in Haman’s humiliation. Hearing the king speak of one whom he desired to honor, he thought that surely the king intended to honor him (6:6). To his great chagrin, he learned that the king ordained that Haman himself was to honor Mordecai, whom he greatly despised (6:10).

After he had fulfilled the king’s directives to honor Mordecai publicly (6:11), “Haman hasted to his house mourning, and having his head covered” (6:12). Plainly, this text is not declaring that he went to his home having hair on his head. Nor is it asserting either that he had long hair on his head as he went home or that he somehow miraculously grew his hair long.

Rather, this verse records that because he had been humiliated, he headed home, draping an external covering over his head.

Furthermore, the LXX rendering of the verse reads as follows:

BGT Esther 6:12 ¶ ἐπέστρεψεν δὲ ὁ Μαρδοχαῖος εἰς τὴν αὐλήν Αμαν δὲ ὑπέστρεψεν εἰς τὰ ἴδια λυπούμενος κατὰ κεφαλῆς

LXE Esther 6:12 And Mardochaeus returned to the palace: but Aman went home mourning, and having his head covered.

KJV Esther 6:12 And Mordecai came again to the king’s gate. But Haman hasted to his house mourning, and having his head covered.

NAU Esther 6:12 Then Mordecai returned to the king’s gate. But Haman hurried home, mourning, with his head covered.

The exact phrase κατὰ κεφαλῆς found here occurs in only one other passage in the Bible in Greek:

BGT 1 Corinthians 11:4 πᾶς ἀνὴρ προσευχόμενος ἢ προφητεύων κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ.

SCR 1 Corinthians 11:4 πᾶς ἀνὴρ προσευχόμενος ἢ προφητεύων, κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ.

KJV 1 Corinthians 11:4 Every man praying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonoureth his head.

NAU 1 Corinthians 11:4 Every man who has something on his head while praying or prophesying disgraces his head.

Moreover, Hatch and Redpath (κατακαλύπτειν, 733) report that another hand of the Septuagint for Esther 6:12 reads, κατακεκαλυμμένος κεφαλήν. This variant reading has the perfect passive participle of the key verb used in 1 Corinthians 11:6 and 7 for both a man’s and a woman’s covering his or her head (κατακαλύπτω):

BGT 1 Corinthians 11:6 εἰ γὰρ οὐ κατακαλύπτεται γυνή, καὶ κειράσθω• εἰ δὲ αἰσχρὸν γυναικὶ τὸ κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι, κατακαλυπτέσθω.

SCR 1 Corinthians 11:6 εἰ γὰρ οὐ κατακαλύπτεται γυνή, καὶ κειράσθω• εἰ δὲ αἰσχρὸν γυναικὶ τὸ κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι, κατακαλυπτέσθω.

KJV 1 Corinthians 11:6 For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered.

NAU 1 Corinthians 11:6 For if a woman does not cover her head, let her also have her hair cut off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, let her cover her head.

BGT 1 Corinthians 11:7 Ἀνὴρ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ὀφείλει κατακαλύπτεσθαι τὴν κεφαλὴν εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα θεοῦ ὑπάρχων• ἡ γυνὴ δὲ δόξα ἀνδρός ἐστιν.

SCR 1 Corinthians 11:7 ἀνὴρ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ὀφείλει κατακαλύπτεσθαι τὴν κεφαλήν, εἰκὼν καὶ δόξα Θεοῦ ὑπάρχων• γυνὴ δὲ δόξα ἀνδρός ἐστιν.

KJV 1 Corinthians 11:7 For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man.

NAU 1 Corinthians 11:7 For a man ought not to have his head covered, since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man.

This evidence from the LXX therefore supports holding that the covering in view in 1 Corinthians 11:1-16 is an external head covering for both a man and a woman.

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

Scripture records the misdeeds of numerous wicked people and uses various terms to describe them as evildoers. Haman is unique among all the evil people spoken of in Scripture because he is the only one for whom the Greek word διάβολος is used:

Esther 7:4 ἐπράθημεν γὰρ ἐγώ τε καὶ ὁ λαός μου εἰς ἀπώλειαν καὶ διαρπαγὴν καὶ δουλείαν ἡμεῖς καὶ τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν εἰς παῖδας καὶ παιδίσκας καὶ παρήκουσα οὐ γὰρ ἄξιος ὁ διάβολος τῆς αὐλῆς τοῦ βασιλέως

LXE Esther 7:4 For both I and my people are sold for destruction, and pillage, and slavery; both we and our children for bondmen and bondwomen: and I consented not to it, for the slanderer is not worthy of the king’s palace.

Esther 8:1 καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀρταξέρξης ἐδωρήσατο Εσθηρ ὅσα ὑπῆρχεν Αμαν τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ Μαρδοχαῖος προσεκλήθη ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως ὑπέδειξεν γὰρ Εσθηρ ὅτι ἐνοικείωται αὐτῇ

LXE Esther 8:1 And in that day king Artaxerxes gave to Esther all that belonged to Aman the slanderer: and Mardochaeus was called by the king; for Esther had shewn that he was related to her.

His use of slander to try to bring about the extermination of the Jews likely explains the use of this word for him (Est. 3:8-9) because he is thus like the devil himself, who “was a murderer from the beginning,” “is a liar, and the father of it” (John 8:44), and seeks the destruction of the Jews (cf. Rev. 12:13-17).

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.

All four Gospels record the ministry of John the Baptist’s testifying to Jesus (Matt. 3; Mark 1; Luke 3; John 1). Through his ministry, who did John identify Jesus to be?

John 1 informs us that John identified Jesus to be the following: the Light (1:7); the One who was before him (1:15, 30); the LORD (1:23); the Lamb of God (1:29); the One who baptizes with the Holy Spirit (1:33); and the Son of God (1:34). Although most believers have understood that John identified Jesus in these ways, there is at least one more way that he seems to have identified Him that many may not have seen.

This likely additional identification pertains to John’s testimony that he “saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove and it abode upon Him” (1:32). He added, “I knew Him not, but He that sent me to baptize with water, the Same said unto me, ‘Upon Whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, the Same is He which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.’ And I saw and bare record that this is the Son of God” (1:34).

These statements show that John testified about Jesus as the Son of God who baptizes with the Holy Spirit. They also, however, speak of the Spirit’s abiding on Him by using the verb μένω (I am abiding) twice:

BGT John 1:32 Καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάννης λέγων ὅτι τεθέαμαι τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον ὡς περιστερὰν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν. 33 κἀγὼ οὐκ ᾔδειν αὐτόν, ἀλλ᾽ ὁ πέμψας με βαπτίζειν ἐν ὕδατι ἐκεῖνός μοι εἶπεν• ἐφ᾽ ὃν ἂν ἴδῃς τὸ πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον καὶ μένον ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν, οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.

SCR John 1:32 καὶ ἐμαρτύρησεν Ἰωάννης, λέγων ὅτι Τεθέαμαι τὸ Πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον ὡσεὶ περιστερὰν ἐξ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ἔμεινεν ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν. 33 κἀγὼ οὐκ ᾔδειν αὐτόν• ἀλλ᾽ ὁ πέμψας με βαπτίζειν ἐν ὕδατι, ἐκεῖνός μοι εἶπεν, Ἐφ᾽ ὃν ἂν ἴδῃς τὸ Πνεῦμα καταβαῖνον καὶ μένον ἐπ᾽ αὐτόν, οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν Πνεύματι Ἁγίῳ.

NAU John 1:32 John testified saying, “I have seen the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven, and He remained upon Him. 33 “I did not recognize Him, but He who sent me to baptize in water said to me, ‘He upon whom you see the Spirit descending and remaining upon Him, this is the One who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.’

KJV John 1:32 And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. 33 And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.

The second occurrence emphasizes that abiding by using a present participle (μένον) to express the continuing nature of that abiding.

A comparison of the teaching of a key OT passage about the Messiah with these statements reveals an important conceptual parallel:

LXE Isaiah 11:2 and the Spirit of God shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and strength, the spirit of knowledge and godliness shall fill him;

BGT Isaiah 11:2 καὶ ἀναπαύσεται ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ πνεῦμα σοφίας καὶ συνέσεως πνεῦμα βουλῆς καὶ ἰσχύος πνεῦμα γνώσεως καὶ εὐσεβείας

NAU Isaiah 11:2 The Spirit of the LORD will rest on Him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.

KJV Isaiah 11:2 And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;

Although Isaiah 11:2 in the LXX uses the verb ἀναπαύω instead of μένω, it appears that they are communicating the same concept in these statements. John the Baptist thus identified Jesus to be the Rod and Branch of Isaiah 11!

Support for this interpretation comes from the strong conceptual parallel between the further teaching of Isaiah 11 and John’s testimony to Jesus recorded in Luke 3:

“And shall make Him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: and He shall not judge after the sight of His eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of His ears: 4 But with righteousness shall He judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked” (Isa. 11:3-4).

“Whose fan is in His hand, and He will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff He will burn with fire unquenchable” (Luke 3:17).

These passages show both the Rod and Branch who had the Spirit resting upon Him (Isa. 11) and the Christ upon whom the Spirit remained (John 1; Luke 3) rendering judgment on both the righteous (“the poor”; “the meek of the earth”; “the wheat”) and the wicked (“the wicked”; “the chaff”).

This analysis thus shows that John the Baptist testified to Jesus as the Spirit-Anointed Rod and Branch who is God’s judicial Agent!

Copyright © 2011-2021 by Rajesh Gandhi. All rights reserved.